BBC Science Nature - Human Body and Mind - Organ Layer. Some but not all studies have reported abnormal polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in cystic fibrosis CF patients.
Pancreatic cancer incidence statisticsAfter a 1-step transesterification with acetyl chloride on plasma and washed erythrocyte membranes, we quantified fatty acid methyl esters by use of GC-MS in CF patients and 80 age-matched healthy pancreatic.
In the CF sex, mean SD age was Sex decrease in docosahexaenoic acid concentrations was observed in CF patients independently of pancreatic status. Male CF patients had significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid and higher eicosatrienoic acid pancreatic plasma and erythrocyte membranes compared with female CF patients. These results support the sex that multiple abnormalities of polyunsaturated fatty acid composition participate in the CF disease phenotype and that pancreatic status plays a major role in such abnormalities.
Moreover, patient sex influences the polyunsaturated fatty acid spectrum pancreatic CF, with more marked abnormalities in males. Cystic fibrosis CF 1 is the most prevalent autosomal recessive inherited disease in white populations.
If you cannot see the Flash Movie playing then you may not have the flash player installed. The latest version of the Flash player can be downloaded free from Macromedia More information and help with installing the Flash Sex can be foundon the BBC's Webwise pages. Your liver is your largest internal organ. A pancreatic blood vessel, sex the portal vein, carries nutrient-rich blood from your small intestine directly to your liver. Hepatic cells make up about 60 percent of your liver tissue. These specialised liver cells carry out more chemical pancreatic than any other group of cells in your body. They change most of the nutrients you consume into forms your body cells can use.Some people choose to die at home, others in a hospice, although beds are not always available. Many die in hospital; they may be there because a particular problem needs special attention, e.g. a bowel obstruction or a serious infection.
- Pancreatic sex of pancreatic disease in
- epidemiological data. Exocrine pancreatic cancer is
Deprivation gradient in pancreatic cancer mortality. Socio-economic variation in cancer incidence for Scotland. Socio-economic variation in cancer incidence for Wales.
Socio-economic variation in cancer incidence for Northern Ireland. Deprivation gradient statistics were calculated using incidence data for The deprivation quintiles were calculated using the Income domain scores from the Index of Multiple Deprivation IMD from the following years: Age-standardised rates for White males with pancreatic cancer range from Rates for Black males are similar, ranging from 7.
For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 7. Rates for Black females are similar, ranging from 6. Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data.
Materials and MethodsCancer incidence statistics b y ethnicity.
An estimated 6, people who had been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer between and were alive in the UK at the end of Pancreatic cancer incidence statistics by sex and UK country. In Europe , the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for pancreatic cancer are in the Czech Republic for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Bosnia Herzegovina for both men and women.
UK pancreatic cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the eighth lowest in males in Europe, and 20th highest in females.
Pancreatic cancer incidence rates are highest in Northern America and lowest in Middle Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.
Pancreatic cancer mortality statistics in Europe and worldwide. Pancreatic cancer survival statistics in Europe and worldwide. W orldwide cancer incidence statistics. Statistics and information on cancer incidence, mortality, survival and risk factors causes by cancer type are presented here.
See information and explanations on terminology used for statistics and reporting of cancer, and the methods used to calculate some of our statistics.
Pancreatic sex The many types of pancreatic cancer can be divided into two general groups. The vast majority of cases (about 95%) occur in the part of the pancreas which produces digestive enzymes, known as the exocrine gum.datingnpop.gdn are several sub-types of exocrine pancreatic cancers, but their diagnosis and treatment have much in common. Founded in , the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) is dedicated to fighting the world’s toughest cancer. In our urgent mission to save lives, we attack pancreatic cancer on all fronts: research, clinical initiatives, patient services and advocacy.Credit us as authors by referencing Cancer Research UK as the primary source. Graphics when recreated with differences: Based on a graphic created by Cancer Research UK. Pancreatic cancer incidence rates European age-standardised AS rates are similar to the UK average in all the UK constituent countries. For pancreatic cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past. Pancreatic cancer mortality statistics by sex and UK country. Cancer incidence for common cancers in the UK. When Cancer Research UK material is used for commercial reasons, we encourage a donation to our life-saving research.
Stay up to date by signing up to our cancer statistics and intelligence newsletter. We are grateful to the many organisations across the UK which collect, analyse, and share the data which we use, and to the patients and public who consent for their data to be used.
BackgroundPancreatic sex Proportion of all cases. Percentage pancreatic cancer is of total cancer cases, , UK. Peak rate of pancreatic cancer cases, , UK.
Change in pancreatic cancer incidence rates since the early s, UK. Pancreatic cancer incidence by sex and UK country. Similar data can be found here: Pancreatic cancer incidence by age. See also Pancreatic cancer mortality statistics by age Pancreatic cancer survival statistics by age Cancer incidence statistics by age for all cancers. Pancreatic cancer incidence trends over time. Differences between groups were determined by Mann-Whitney test.
Disturbed plasma and tissue fatty acid compositions have been well described in CF patients 8. However, some major discrepancies in PUFA variations have been observed in the blood compartments analyzed in some studies 8. With the use of GC-MS, which provides improved characterization and sensitivity, and the inclusion in our study of a large cohort of CF patients, we have demonstrated characteristic and profound alterations in both plasma and erythrocyte membranes and the influence of pancreatic status and sex on these alterations.
As in the literature background results 8 , we observed some significant changes in the plasma PUFA composition of our CF population. Although changes were statistically significant, physiological repercussions could not be established during this study. Reduced concentrations of LA in plasma and tissues have been found in CF patients 8 12 13 as well as in our CF population.
Concentrations of AA have proved more variable in different studies, including values that were significantly decreased 21 22 or not different 12 22 23 24 25 compared with controls. Our CF patients presented a slight but significant decrease in plasma AA concentrations. Concerning DHA concentrations, we noted a significant decrease, as previously described in some studies 12 21 but not in others 22 The discrepancies in AA and DHA plasma concentrations, from the previous studies, can be explained in part by the low number of CF patients enrolled 8.
Because of the size of our cohort of CF patients, we were able to find significant decreases in AA and DHA concentrations in plasma as often observed when these PUFAs were analyzed from plasma phospholipids instead of total plasma lipids 8 However, the low DHA concentrations seem not to depend on pancreatic status. The presence of pancreatic insufficiency impaired the n-6 fatty acid concentrations, LA and AA, whereas the negative effect of CF on DHA concentrations was independent of pancreatic status.
Tissues from mammals seem to have a highly regulated specific membrane lipid composition 27 These lasting alterations can be involved, in part, in the progression in the physiopathology of specific tissues altered by CF. On the assumption that the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte cell membrane may be similar to that of other organs and tissues 29 , erythrocyte seems to be a reliable surrogate of the accretion of PUFAs and particularly n-3 fatty acids from exogenous dietary sources as well as endogenous synthesis In studies in which fatty acid composition was monitored in erythrocyte membranes 8 23 24 31 32 33 , no abnormality was detected in AA and DHA concentrations, whereas the most consistent alterations seemed to be detected in LA content.
When specific membrane fractions, such as phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylcholines, were examined, however, a decrease in both AA and DHA was observed 34 In our whole CF population, we reported a decrease in LA concentrations.
As with the results in plasma, the main feature of pancreatic sufficient CF patients was a significant decrease in DHA concentrations.
Disturbances in essential fatty acid metabolism were evident in CF patients. Indeed, altered DHA concentrations in both plasma and erythrocyte membranes were the main feature of pancreatic sufficient CF patients.
These reductions could result neither from fat malabsorption, because concentrations of the two essential fatty acids, LA and ALA, were not altered, nor from a decrease in desaturase activities, since n-6 long-chain PUFAs were not altered. So an increase in DHA metabolism could explain lower concentrations. The trivial explanation for reduced LA concentrations could be fat malabsorption, but because ALA concentrations in these patients were not different than those of healthy controls, the fat malabsorption seems not to be the only factor involved.
A decrease in desaturase activities or acceleration in n-6 PUFA resulting from an accentuated catabolism of AA into eicosanoids 36 may contribute as associated cofactors to explain these reduced LA concentrations. The observed decrease in DHA concentrations in both plasma and erythrocyte membranes, independent of pancreatic status, can reflect an accentuated catabolism of DHA.
Indeed, DHA is the precursor of a series of mediators, including resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotectins, that are involved in the resolution phase of inflammation, enhanced in CF patients 37 So DHA exerts a cardinal influence on cell functionality, and a decrease of DHA bioavailability in CF patients may have deleterious effects on tissue functionality and particularly on pulmonary and pancreatic functions.
In regard to DHA concentrations, we found a significant influence of sex in CF patients, whereas no similar effect was observed in controls. Indeed, male CF patients presented significantly lower concentrations of DHA in both plasma and erythrocyte membranes. A previous study has shown a sex difference for some fatty acids in plasma nonesterified fatty acid fraction, but unfortunately n-3 fatty acids were not investigated Further investigations are required to understand this phenomenon.
In this study, the LAxDHA product was the most effective parameter, of 11 fatty acid parameters, in measuring plasma fatty acid status to discriminate CF patients from healthy controls in a blinded way. In our study, although the LAxDHA product is significantly decreased in pancreatic sufficient CF patients and further decreased in pancreatic insufficient CF patients, this product seems not discriminating enough to easily distinguish pancreatic sufficient CF patients from healthy controls with this cutoff.
In conclusion, we analyzed plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid compositions from a large cohort of CF patients to address some questions arising from observed discrepancies in fatty acid profiles in the literature. The similar changes observed in both plasma and erythrocyte membranes indicate that plasma would be a logistically simpler sample for laboratory determination of fatty acid composition in CF patients.
Our data clearly demonstrate that pancreatic status plays a cardinal role in the observed decreases in LA, AA, and DHA concentrations in blood lipids. However, the decrease of DHA concentrations seems to be independent of pancreatic status, since pancreatic sufficient CF patients also had this feature.
Finally, the observed decrease of DHA concentrations in male CF patients compared with female CF patients requires further investigation. Critical reading of the manuscript by Pr. Jean Lebacq is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also thank all the healthy controls and the CF patients of this study. Skip to main content.
Materials and Methods study participants Clinical data were collected from CF patients meeting the consensus-statement requirement for the diagnosis of this disease 14 and regularly attending our CF reference center in Brussels. View inline View popup.
Population characteristics of healthy controls and CF patients. Discussion Disturbed plasma and tissue fatty acid compositions have been well described in CF patients 8. Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: Science Wash DC ; Annu Rev Physiol ; EMBO J ; Pathophysiology and management of pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis. Nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis: J Cyst Fibros ; 1: Use of famotidine in severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with persistent maldigestion on enzymatic replacement therapy: Dig Dis Sci ; This significant difference was not observed in subgroup analysis according to sex.
Beyond these associations, none of the other examined factors were found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of incident pancreatic cancer. As expected, the results confirm smoking as an important risk factor for incident pancreatic cancer, overall and in both sexes. This association was particularly evident in regular smokers, but even occasional smoking was shown to be significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer in women, but not in men.
This association remained significant in the group of never and former smokers; however, in contrast to the results in the study on the EPIC cohort, no significant correlations to risk were seen in the group of only never smokers regarding ETS [ 23 ]. The finding of a possibly stronger correlation between smoking and risk of pancreatic cancer in women is in line with the results of several previous studies [ 10 , 15 , 23 , 38 ].
The interaction between smoking and sex was tested in three of these studies, whereby two found no significant interaction [ 23 , 38 ] and one a significant interaction between sex and duration of smoking [ 10 ]. Whether women are more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of smoking than men has been investigated previously, in particular in studies on lung cancer [ 39 — 42 ]. Collectively, these studies indicate an increased vulnerability to tobacco carcinogens among women, but whether this is also the case in pancreatic cancer has not yet been thoroughly investigated.
However, the obvious link between smoking and pancreatic cancer risk, and the herein observed potential sex differences, notwithstanding the non-significant interaction between sex and smoking or exposure to ETS at work, emphasizes the importance to consider potential sex differences in epidemiological studies. Moreover, despite the still lower reported percentage of smokers among women than among men, a plausible explanation for the current equal incidence rate of pancreatic cancer between the sexes may well be the rising female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios in high-income countries, where pancreatic cancer is more common than in low-income countries [ 43 , 44 ].
It is noteworthy that former smokers were not shown to have an increased risk of incident pancreatic cancer in the present study. One could ponder that regular smoking would be a potential risk factor not only when ongoing but also for a period of time after quitting.
Among never smokers, pancreatic cancer risk was also shown to be significantly increased for those who had been exposed to ETS during childhood and at work or at home in their adult life, compared to those never exposed. Those only exposed to ETS at home or work in their adult life had a borderline significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk, but those only exposed in childhood had no significantly increased risk [ 23 ]. In the present study, alcohol consumption did not differ significantly between cases and non-cases and was not found to be significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, neither in the entire cohort nor in sex-stratified analysis.
High alcohol consumption is a well-known risk factor for pancreatitis [ 31 , 32 ], and pancreatitis has, in some studies, been shown to be a risk factor for incident pancreatic cancer [ 7 , 16 , 17 ]. Along this line, alcohol consumption can be assumed to influence pancreatic cancer risk, but the results from several previous studies in this regard are inconclusive [ 24 — 30 ].
Potential sex differences are even less investigated, but, according to existing data, the correlation appears to be stronger among men [ 25 — 27 ]. Prevalent diabetes has in many studies been highlighted as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer [ 13 — 15 ]. According to the results of the present study, however, only new-onset diabetes was found to be significantly more common among cases compared with non-cases. This finding is in line with the expected, as the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer are known to develop diabetes at some point due to their disease [ 2 , 4 , 8 , 45 ].
Along this line, it will be of interest to further interrogate the associations of various factors associated with insulin resistance and pancreatic cancer risk in the herein investigated cohort. Hence, the individuals entering the study at a higher age than the median were closer to their age of peak incidence.
Of note, this significant difference was only seen in the entire cohort, and among women, with a significant interaction between female sex and age in the fully adjusted model. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-diagnostic anthropometry and risk of pancreatic cancer, overall and according to sex.
Apart from the finding of a high WHR being significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the entire cohort, but not in sex-stratified analysis, none of the other investigated anthropometric factors was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, neither in the entire cohort nor in sex-stratified analyses. According to the existing literature, BMI has been proposed as the anthropometric factor with the strongest association to risk of pancreatic cancer, but yet there is no definite consensus [ 5 — 7 , 15 , 16 , 18 , 19 ].
In a previous study within the EPIC cohort, including incident cases in the MDCS up until April , a higher WHR as well as a larger waist circumference was observed to significantly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, while there were no significant associations between BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer [ 20 ].
In light of the herein presented results, it would be of interest to re-examine the associations of pre-diagnostic anthropometry with pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort, with a more recent follow-up on incident cases. Of note, the number of female participants in the MDCS is higher than the number of male participants, which resulted in a higher number of female than male pancreatic cancer cases. However, the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer did not differ significantly between men and women, which confirms the contemporary equal incidence rate of pancreatic cancer between the sexes [ 1 , 3 ].
In this study, regular smoking was confirmed to be a strong risk factor for pancreatic cancer in both sexes, but the relationship between occasional smoking and long-term environmental exposure with pancreatic cancer risk was only observed in women. Despite the lack of a significant interaction with sex, these findings suggest that the carcinogenic effects of smoking may be more hazardous in women and emphasize the importance of taking potential sex differences into consideration in epidemiological studies and prevention efforts.
Furthermore, the results from this study demonstrate that a high waist-hip ratio was the only pre-diagnostic anthropometric factor being significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, with no difference between sexes. All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.
GA collected clinical data, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. CW collected clinical data and helped draft the manuscript. SB assisted with the statistical analyses and helped draft the manuscript. KJ conceived of the study, assisted with the statistical analyses, and helped draft the manuscript.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. All EU and national regulations and requirements for handling human samples have been fully complied with during the conduct of this project, i. Written informed consent has been obtained from each subject at study entry. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Biol Sex Differ v.
Published online Dec 9. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 13; Accepted Dec 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Lifestyle factors may influence the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Results BMI was not a significant risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but a higher WHR was significantly associated with an increased risk in the entire cohort hazard ratio HR 2.
Conclusions WHR was the only pre-diagnostic anthropometric factor associated with pancreatic cancer risk, with no sex-related differences. Obesity, Alcohol, Smoking, Lifestyle, Pancreatic cancer risk. Open in a separate window. Statistical methods Cox regression proportional hazards models were applied to investigate the impact of age at baseline, sex entire cohort , smoking habits, ETS, alcohol consumption, and diabetes with pancreatic cancer-free person-years.
CLEANSE YOUR PANCREAS, LIVER AND KIDNEYS WITH THIS ONE INGREDIENT
Sex steroids effects in normal endocrine pancreatic function and diabetes. The secretory response of the exocrine pancreas to an intravenous bolus of secretin ( U/kg) was studied in healthy men and women below and above Pancreatic sex