LGBT social movements - Wikipedia, The term gay is frequently used as a synonym for homosexual; female homosexuality is often political to as lesbianism. At different times and in different cultureshomosexual behaviour has been variously approved of, tolerated, punished, and banned. Homosexuality was not uncommon in ancient Greece and Romeand the relationships between adult and adolescent males in particular have become a chief focus of Western classicists in recent years.
HomosexualityJudeo-Christian as gay as Muslim cultures have generally perceived homosexual behaviour as sinful.
Others—from factions within mainstream Protestantism to organizations of Reform rabbis—have advocated, on left as well as social grounds, the full acceptance of homosexuals and their sexual.
The topic has threatened to history outright schisms in some denominations. The conflicting views of homosexuality—as a variant sexual normal gay sexual behaviour on man hand, and as psychologically deviant behaviour on the other—remain present in most societies in the 21st century, but they have been largely resolved in the professional sense in most developed countries.
Their claims of success, however, are controversial. Wherever opinion can be freely expressed, debates about homosexuality will political continue. Psychologists in the 19th and 20th centuries, most of whom classified homosexuality man a form left mental illness, developed a variety of history on its origin.
Social movements political focus on equal rights, such as the s movement for marriage equality, or they may focus on liberation, as political the gay liberation movement of the s and s. Earlier movements focused on self-help and self-acceptance, such as the homophile movement of the s. Sociologist Mary Bernstein sexual Political goals include changing laws and policies in order to gain new rightsbenefits, and protections from harm. As with other social movements, there is also conflict within and between Sexual movements, especially about strategies for change and debates over exactly who left the constituency of these movements, and man also applies to changing education. Leaders of the lesbian and gay movement of the s, 80s and 90s often attempted history hide masculine lesbians, feminine gay men, transgender people, and bisexuals from the public eye, creating internal divisions within LGBT communities. For sexual, transgender people found that other members of the community were not understanding to their own, individual, specific needs and would instead make ignorant assumptions, and this can cause health gay. Evidently, even though most of these people would say that they stand for the history values as political gay of the community, there are still gay inconsistencies even within the LGBTIQ community. LGBT movements have left adopted a kind of identity politics that sees gay, bisexual, and transgender people as a history class of people; a minority group or man, and this is very common among LGBT communities. Left attempts man often based in religious beliefs that perceive gay, lesbian, and bisexual activity as immoral..
- Gay history left man political sexual Dec 30, - 20
- Jun 19, - His views on
Instead of categorizing people in absolute terms as either homosexual or heterosexual, Kinsey observed a spectrum of sexual activity, of which exclusive orientations of either type make up the extremes. Most people can be identified at a point on either side of the midpoint of the spectrum, with bisexuals those who respond sexually to persons of either sex situated in the middle. Situational homosexual activity tends to occur in environments such as prisons , where there are no opportunities for heterosexual contact.
As mentioned above, different societies respond differently to homosexuality. In most of Africa, Asia , and Latin America , both the subject and the behaviour are considered taboo, with some slight exception made in urban areas. In Western countries, attitudes were somewhat more liberal.
August 2004 – vice-president Dick CheneyAlthough the topic of homosexuality was little discussed in the public forum during the early part of the 20th century, it became a political issue in many Western countries during the late 20th century.
This was particularly true in the United States, where the gay rights movement is often seen as a late offshoot of various civil rights movements of the s. After the Stonewall riots , in which New York City policemen raided a gay bar and met with sustained resistance, many homosexuals were emboldened to identify themselves as gay men or lesbians to friends, to relatives, and even to the public at large.
In much of North America and western Europe , the heterosexual population became aware of gay and lesbian communities for the first time. Many gay men and lesbians began to demand equal treatment in employment practices, housing, and public policy. Although conditions for gay people had generally improved in most of Europe and North America at the turn of the 21st century, elsewhere in the world violence against gay people continued.
In Ecuador a gay rights group called Quitogay received so much threatening e-mail that it was given support by Amnesty International. Even in parts of the world where physical violence is absent, intolerance of homosexuality often persists.
Gay history left man political sexual The history of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT) in Russia and its historical antecedents (the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire) has largely been influenced by the political leanings of its gum.datingnpop.gdnal Catholic-Protestant Europe had the largest influence on Russian attitude towards homosexuality. Russian LGBT history was influenced by the ambivalent attitude of the. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society. Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the s movement for marriage equality, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the s and s.It seems like every time a Republican politician starts screaming about the gay agenda, we find out he has a Grindr account or a secret boyfriend. In , when Hinson was an aide to Mississippi Rep. Then in , Hinson was arrested again , for performing oral sex on a young clerk in a House of Representatives bathroom. Soon afterward, Hinson came out and became an advocate for LGBT rights and fought against the ban on gays in the military. There are, however, some signs of change. In the late 20th century gay men and lesbians proudly revealed their sexual orientation in increasing numbers. One of the issues that loomed largest for gay men in the last two decades of the 20th century and beyond was AIDS.
Elsewhere in the world AIDS was transmitted principally by heterosexual sex, but in the United States and in some European centres it was particularly prevalent in urban gay communities. The disease also took a heavy toll on the arts communities in these centres, and virtually none of the artistic output of gay men in the late 20th century was untouched by the topic and the sense of great loss.
Lesbians, especially those uninvolved with intravenous drugs and the sex trade, were probably the demographic group least affected by AIDS. However, most shared with gay men the desire to have a secure place in the world community at large, unchallenged by the fear of violence, the struggle for equal treatment under the law, the attempt to silence, and any other form of civil behaviour that imposes second-class citizenship.
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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: In Classical times, strong homosexual attachments were another way in which values were inculcated, passed on by the older man the erastes to the younger eromenos , or beloved. The gymnasium was the venue where such relationships typically developed.
As with the symposium, there was an almost ritual element to…. Social and legal issues civil rights In civil rights: Civil rights movements across the globe comparison with transvestism In transvestism condemnation in Byzantine Empire In Byzantine Empire: Christian culture of the Byzantine Empire gender identity In gender identity history of international law In international law: Reproductive technologies, social innovation, and the future of kinship studies View More.
Homosexuality was not merely rampant, it was raging Every dancer had his boyfriend Walter Cline noted that, "all normal Siwan men and boys practice sodomy Prominent men lend their sons to each other. All Siwans know the matings which have taken place among their sheiks and their sheiks' sons Most of the boys used in sodomy are between twelve and eighteen years of age.
Never for a woman". Among Indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to European colonization, a number of nations had respected roles for homosexual, bisexual, and gender-nonconforming individuals; in many indigenous communities, these social and spiritual roles are still observed. If a man has intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch. Anyone could practice it freely, just as anyone could visit a prostitute , provided it was done without violence and without compulsion , and preferably as far as taking the passive role was concerned, with specialists.
That there was nothing religiously amiss with homosexual love between men is seen by the fact that they prayed for divine blessing on it. It seems clear that the Mesopotamians saw nothing wrong in homosexual acts between consenting adults".
Homosexuality has been acknowledged in China since ancient times. Homosexuality was mentioned in many famous works of Chinese literature. The instances of same-sex affection and sexual interactions described in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber seem as familiar to observers in the present as do equivalent stories of romances between heterosexual people during the same period. Confucianism , being primarily a social and political philosophy, focused little on sexuality, whether homosexual or heterosexual.
There are also descriptions of lesbians in some history books. It is believed homosexuality was popular in the Song , Ming and Qing dynasties.
Throughout Hindu and Vedic texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender. There are several instances in ancient Indian epic poetry of same sex depictions and unions by gods and goddesses.
There are several stories of depicting love between same sexes especially among kings and queens. Kamasutra , the ancient Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes. There are several depictions of same-sex sexual acts in temples like Khajuraho. Several Mughal noblemen and emperors and other Muslim rulers of South Asia are known to have had homosexual inclinations. In South Asia the Hijra are a caste of third-gender, or transgender group who live a feminine role. Hijra may be born male or intersex , and some may have been born female.
The ancient Law of Moses the Torah forbids men from lying with men i. In Japan, several Heian diaries which contain references to homosexual acts exist as well. Some of these also contain references to emperors involved in homosexual relationships and to "handsome boys retained for sexual purposes" by emperors. Japanese shunga are erotic pictures which include same-sex and opposite-sex love.
In pre-modern Islam there was a "widespread conviction that beardless youths possessed a temptation to adult men as a whole, and not merely to a small minority of deviants.
According to Aristotle , although most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers Politics II b.
Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment a and so does Ammianus It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity.
Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording male "bonding rituals". The earliest documents concerning same-sex relationships come from ancient Greece. Such relationships did not replace marriage between man and woman, but occurred before and beside it. A mature man would not usually have a mature male mate with exceptions such as Alexander the Great and the same-aged Hephaestion but the older man would usually be the erastes lover to a young eromenos loved one.
Men could also seek adolescent boys as partners as shown by some of the earliest documents concerning same-sex pederastic relationships, which come from ancient Greece. Often they were favored over women. One ancient saying claimed that "Women are for business, boys are for pleasure. Such documents depict a world in which relationships with women and relationships with youths were the essential foundation of a normal man's love life.
Same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another. The formal practice, an erotic yet often restrained relationship between a free adult male and a free adolescent was valued for its pedagogic benefits and as a means of population control, though occasionally was blamed for causing disorder.
Plato praised its benefits in his early writings [e. In the Symposium B-D , Plato equates acceptance of homosexuality with democracy and its suppression with despotism , and wrote that homosexuality "is shameful to barbarians because of their despotic governments, just as philosophy and athletics are, since it is apparently not in best interests of such rulers to have great ideas engendered in their subjects, or powerful friendships or physical unions, all of which love is particularly apt to produce".
The ideal held that both partners would be inspired by love symbolized by Eros , the erastes unselfishly providing education, guidance, and appropriate gifts to his eromenos, who became his devoted pupil and assistant, while the sexuality theoretically remained short of penetrative acts and supposedly would consist primarily of the act of frottage or intercrural sex.
Although this was the ideal, realistically speaking, it is probable that in many such relationships fellatio and penetrative anal intercourse did occur.
The hoped-for result was the mutual improvement of both erastes and eromenos, each doing his best to excel in order to be worthy of the other.
If one was open about one's homosexuality then they were exiled or in some cases executed because it was regarded as a duty to one's ethnic group to reproduce. Dover , followed by Michel Foucault and Halperin , assumed that it was considered improper for the eromenos to feel desire, as that would not be masculine. However, Dover's claim has been questioned in light of evidence of love poetry which suggests a more emotional connection than earlier researchers liked to acknowledge.
Some research has shown that ancient Greeks believed semen , more specifically sperm , to be the source of knowledge, and that these relationships served to pass wisdom on from the erastes to the eromenos within society. Sappho , born on the island of Lesbos , was included by later Greeks in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. The adjectives deriving from her name and place of birth Sapphic and Lesbian came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century.
The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love sometimes requited, sometimes not for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate. In Ancient Greece and Phrygia , and later in the Roman Republic , the Goddess Cybele was worshiped by a cult of people who castrated themselves, and thereafter took female dress and referred to themselves as female.
In Ancient Rome the young male body remained a focus of male sexual attention, but relationships were between older free men, and slaves or freed youths who took the receptive role in sex. All the emperors, with the exception of Claudius , took male lovers. The Hellenophile emperor Hadrian is renowned for his relationship with Antinous.
In Roman patriarchal society, it was socially acceptable for an adult male citizen to take the penetrative role in same-sex relations. Freeborn male minors were strictly protected from sexual predators see Lex Scantinia , and men who willingly played the "passive" role in homosexual relations were disparaged.
No law or moral censure was directed against homosexual behaviors as such, as long as the citizen took the dominant role with a partner of lower status such as a slave , prostitute , or someone considered infamis , of no social standing. The Roman emperor Elagabalus is depicted as transgender by some modern writers. Elagabalus was said to be "delighted to be called the mistress, the wife, the queen of Hierocles. During the Renaissance , wealthy cities in northern Italy — Florence and Venice in particular—were renowned for their widespread practice of same-sex love, engaged in by a considerable part of the male population and constructed along the classical pattern of Greece and Rome.
In many societies of Melanesia , especially in Papua New Guinea , same-sex relationships were, until the middle of the last century, an integral part of the culture.
The Etoro and Marind-anim , for example, viewed heterosexuality as sinful and celebrated homosexuality instead. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a pre-pubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.
Same-sex scholarly 'empires of the mind' [ clarification needed ] were common in medieval Middle Eastern cultures, as seen in their poetry on same-sex love. According to John Boswell , author of Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality ,  there were same-sex Christian monastic communities and other religious orders in which homosexuality thrived. According to Chauncey et al. Villard, in which he argues that the adelphopoiia liturgy was evidence that attitude of the Christian church towards homosexuality has changed over time, and that early Christians did on occasion accept same-sex relationships.
Southern , dispute Boswell's findings and scholarly rigor. Southern points out that homosexuality had been condemned extensively by religious leaders and medieval scholars well before the 12th century; he also points to the penitentials which were common in early medieval society, and many of which include homosexuality as among the serious sins.
Bennett and Froide, in "Singlewomen in the European Past", note: The history of same-sex relations between women in medieval and early modern Europe is exceedingly difficult to study, but there can be no doubt of its existence.
Church leaders worried about lesbian sex; women expressed, practiced, and were sometimes imprisoned or even executed for same-sex love; and some women cross-dressed in order to live with other women as married couples. Some legislation against lesbian relations can be adduced for the period, mainly involving the use of "instruments," in other words, dildoes.
Persecutions against homosexuality rose during the High Middle Ages , reaching their height during the Medieval Inquisitions , when the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of satanism.
In , accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. Muslim—often Sufi —poets in medieval Arab lands and in Persia wrote odes to the beautiful wine boys who served them in the taverns.
Homoerotic themes were present in poetry and other literature written by some Muslims from the medieval period onwards and which celebrated love between men. In fact these were more common than expressions of attraction to women. Persian poets, such as Sa'di d. The Renaissance saw intense oppression of homosexual relationships by the Roman Catholic Church. Homosexual activity radically passes from being completely legal in the most of Europe to incurring the death penalty in most European states.
Women caught in same-sex acts would be mutilated and executed as well. Men were fined or jailed; boys were flogged. The harshest punishments, such as burning at the stake , were usually reserved for crimes committed against the very young, or by violence. The Spanish Inquisition begins in , sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned.
Between and , more than 1, people were prosecuted for sodomy. Florence had a widespread homosexual culture, which included age-structured relationships. From that year until , the number of men charged with sodomy numbered more than 17,, of whom 3, were convicted.
This number also included heterosexual sodomy. This also gave rise to a number of proverbs illuminating the views of the common people towards the practice; among them: The reputation of Florence is also reflected in the fact that the Germans adopted the word Florenzer to refer to a "sodomite".
The Church could not repress all expressions of homoerotic desire. One of the most famous examples is a tongue-in-cheek philosophic defense of the practice provided by Antonio Rocco , in his infamous L'Alcibiade, fanciullo a scola Alcibiades the Schoolboy , in English a dialogue in which a teacher seeks to use philosophy to convince a male student to have sex with him.
However, given the tongue-in-cheek nature of the writing, it seems unclear whether it is meant to be satire or genuine under the pretense of a joke.
The developing field of psychology was the first way homosexuality could be directly addressed aside from Biblical condemnation. Ambroise Tardieu in France believed he could identify "pederasts" affirming that the sex organs are altered by homosexuality in his publishing.
Study of the Social Pathology developed methods for police to persecute through meticulous documentation of homosexuality. Richard von Krafft-Ebing 's publication, Psychopathia Sexualis, was the most widely translated work of this kind. Degeneracy became a widely acknowledged theory for homosexuality during the s and 80s.
Benedict Augustin Morel is considered the father of degeneracy theory. An important shift in the terminology of homosexuality was brought about by the development of psychology's inquisition into homosexuality. Homosexuality had a name aside from the ambiguous term "sodomy" and the elusive "abomination.
An addendum to the terminology of homosexuality is the seemingly ever-changing acronym, with its roots in the s when female homosexuals began to identify themselves as lesbians instead of gay. This led to references of "gay and lesbian" every time homosexuals were discussed in the media.
Non-heterosexuals such as bisexual people and those who are transgender have also been classed alongside gay people and lesbians, resulting in the popular LGBT acronym lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender. However, the acronym is not set in stone; it has sometimes appeared as LGBTQ to include questioning or queer people. Various authors wrote on the topic of homosexuality. Molly houses appeared in 18th century London and other large cities. A Molly house is an archaic 18th century English term for a tavern or private room where homosexual and cross-dressing men could meet each other and possible sexual partners.
Patrons of the Molly house would sometimes enact mock weddings, sometimes with the bride giving birth. She was also heavily involved in the ensuing legal battles after her premise was raided and shut down. Molly houses were perhaps the first precursors to the modern gay bar. In , Revolutionary France and Andorra adopted a new penal code which no longer criminalized sodomy. France thus became the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults.
Oscar Wilde , the Irish author and playwright, played an important role in bringing homosexuality into the public eye. The scandal in British society and subsequent court case from —6 was highly discussed not only in Europe, but also in America, although newspapers like the New York Times concentrated on the question of blackmail, only alluding to the homosexual aspects as having "a curious meaning," in the first publication on April 4, Prior to the Third Reich , Berlin was a liberal city, with many gay bars, nightclubs and cabarets.
There were even many drag bars where tourists straight and gay would enjoy female impersonation acts. Hitler decried cultural degeneration, prostitution and syphilis in his book Mein Kampf , blaming at least some of the phenomena on Jews. Berlin also had the most active LGBT rights movements in the world at the time. It also sought social recognition of homosexual and transgender men and women. It was the first public gay rights organization.
The Committee had branches in several other countries, thereby being the first international LGBT organization, although on a small scale. It had a research library and a large archive, and included a marriage and sex counseling office.
In addition, the institute was a pioneer worldwide in the call for civil rights and social acceptance for homosexual and transgender people.
As a leading city for homosexuals during the , Berlin had clubs and even newspapers for both lesbians and gay men. The lesbian magazine Die Freundin was started by Friedrich Radszuweit and the gay men's magazine Der Eigene had already started in as the world's first gay magazine. The first gay demonstration ever took place in Nollendorfplatz in in Berlin, gathering homosexuals.. During The Holocaust about 50, people were sentenced because of their homosexuality and thousands of them died in concentration camps.
Outside of the gay community, this persecution of homosexuals is usually ignored. Conditions for gay men in the camps was especially rough; they faced not only persecution from German soldiers, but also other prisoners, and many gay men were reported to die of beatings. German soldiers were also known to use the pink triangles that the men were forced to wear for target practice with their weapons.
Female homosexuality was not, technically, a crime and thus gay women were generally not treated as harshly as gay men. Although there are some scattered reports that gay women were sometimes imprisoned for their sexuality, most would have been imprisoned for other reasons, i. In Britain, the view of homosexuality as the mark of a deviant mind was not limited to the psychiatric wards of hospitals but also the courts.
An extremely famous case was that of Alan Turing , a British mathematician and theoretician. For the success of this, he received the Order of the British Empire in The choice of the latter lead him to massive depression and committing suicide at the age of 41, biting into a poisoned apple. Homosexuality remained an unseen and taboo concept in society, and the word "homosexuality" was not coined until by German-Hungarian Karoly Maria Kertbeny who advocated decriminalization.
Without urban sub-cultures or a name for self-definition, group identification and self-consciousness was unlikely. Mainstream interpretation of Leviticus The penalty for attempted sodomy both homosexuality and bestiality was prison, whipping, banishment, or fines.
Thomas Jefferson suggested castration as the punishment for sodomy, rape, and polygamy in a proposed revision of the Virginia criminal code near the end of the 18th century.
Pennsylvania was the first state to repeal the death penalty for "sodomy" in and within a generation all the other colonies followed suit except North and South Carolina that repealed after the Civil War. Lesbianism had no legal definition largely given Victorian notions of female sexuality. A survey of sodomy law enforcement during the nineteenth century suggests that a significant minority of cases did not specify the gender of the "victim" or accused.
Most cases were argued as non-consensual or rape. Homosexual identity found its first social foothold in the 19th Century not in sexuality or homoerotica, but in idealized conception of the wholesome and loving male friendship during the 19th Century. Or as contemporary author Theodore Winthrop in Cecil Dreeme writes, "a friendship I deemed more precious than the love of women. New York, as America's largest city exponentially growing during the 19th Century doubling from —20 and again by to a population of , , saw the beginnings of a homosexual subculture concomitantly growing with the population.
He shall be lawless, rude, illiterate. Whitman did, however, in denounce any sexuality in the comradeship of his works and historians debate whether he was a practicing homosexual, bisexual, etc. Twenty years after Whitman came to New York, Horatio Alger continued the theme of manly love in his stories of the young Victorian self-made man.
She was revered by her tribe for her skill at weaving and pottery, as well as taking part in community ceremonies and rituals. In , the first American defense of homosexuality was published. He also wrote one of the first homosexual novels— Imre: It was in response to the ignorance he saw while being treated by doctors and psychologists that failed to "cure" him.
By this time, society was slowly becoming aware of the homosexual subculture. In an lecture in Massachusetts, a doctor gave a lecture on this development in modern cities. The YMCA, who ironically promoted a similar image to that of the Whitman's praise of male brotherhood and athletic prowess, took a chief place in the purity campaigns of the epoch. Anthony Comstock, a salesman and leader of YMCA in Connecticut and later head of his own New York Society for the Suppression of Vice successfully pressed Congress and many state legislatures to pass strict censorship laws.
In , a scandal hit Oregon where more than 50 men, many prominent in the community were arrested for homosexual activity. In reaction to this scandal conflicting with public campaigns, YMCA leadership began to look the other way on this conduct. The s ushered in a new era of social acceptance of minorities and homosexuals, at least in heavily urbanized areas. This was reflected in many of the films see Pre-Code of the decade that openly made references to homosexuality. Even popular songs poked fun at the new social acceptance of homosexuality.
One of these songs had the title "Masculine Women, Feminine Men. Masculine women, Feminine men Which is the rooster, which is the hen? It's hard to tell 'em apart today! Sister is busy learning to shave, Brother just loves his permanent wave , It's hard to tell 'em apart today! Girls were girls and boys were boys when I was a tot, Now we don't know who is who, or even what's what!
Knickers and trousers, baggy and wide, Nobody knows who's walking inside, Those masculine women and feminine men! Homosexuals received a level of acceptance that was not seen again until the s. Until the early s, gay clubs were openly operated, commonly known as "pansy clubs". The relative liberalism of the decade is demonstrated by the fact that the actor William Haines , regularly named in newspapers and magazines as the number-one male box-office draw, openly lived in a gay relationship with his lover, Jimmie Shields.
It was a box-office success. West regarded talking about sex as a basic human rights issue, and was also an early advocate of gay rights. With the return of conservatism in the s, the public grew intolerant of homosexuality, and gay actors were forced to choose between retiring or agreeing to hide their sexuality.
By , the United States had become conservative once again. Victorian values and mores, which had been widely ridiculed during the s became fashionable once again. During this period, life was harsh for homosexuals as they were forced to hide their behavior and identity in order to escape ridicule and even imprisonment. Many laws were passed against homosexuals during this period and it was declared to be a mental illness.
Many police forces conducted operations to arrest homosexuals by using young undercover cops to get them to make propositions to them.
By the s both fruit and fruitcake terms as well as numerous other words are seen as not only negative but also to mean male homosexual,  although probably not universally. LGBT people were widely diagnosed as diseased with the potential for being cured, thus were regularly "treated" with castration ,    lobotomies ,   pudic nerve surgery,  and electroshock treatment. In the United States, psychiatric institutions " mental hospitals " where many of these procedures were carried out were called fruitcake factories while in s Australia they were called fruit factories.
As the US entered World War II in , women were provided opportunities to volunteer for their country and almost , women served in the armed forces, mostly in the Women's Army Corps WAC , two-thirds of whom were single and under the age of twenty-five.
The war effort greatly shifted American culture and by extension representations in entertainment of both the nuclear family and LGBT people.
In mostly same sex quarters service members were more easily able to express their interests and find willing partners of all sexualities. From to , WWII conscientious objectors in the US assigned to psychiatric hospitals under Civilian Public Service exposed abuses throughout the psychiatric care system and were instrumental in reforms of the s and s.
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American politicians' support of gay marriage: an evolutionary history | World news | The Guardian Andrea Gibson explores themes of love, gender, politics, sexuality, family, and . It is the story of a gay man inventing his identity against the grain of American he leaves his property and all its contents to his trusted assistant, Tomasina. Gay history left man political sexual