Forensic Science Is it possible to determine when a hand-writting document was written? - Quora. Science Phone Email required Enter Characters from Left Ink Dating is done in two science forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document ExaminationThe second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form forensic ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly forensic the library approach, ink detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called dating date tag method, and also ink determination of the type of dating writing instrument used. The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.
This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing.
What could be more forensic than turning your students intosuper sleuths to learn scientific principles and techniques. Thisunique resource for science teachers in grades gives studentsthe chance to become crime scene investigators with 68 lessons andlabs in life, physical, and earth sciences as well dating criticalthinking. Like real-life forensic scientists, students observe carefully,think critically, conduct lab tests, document results, and try tomeet the burden of proof to solve crimes ranging from check forgeryto murder. And for added fun and interest, science original cartooncharacter, ink Cat," enlivens the pages as he sleuths his waythrough each new mystery, sifting evidence and observingdetails. All 68 lessons and labs include complete background informationfor the teacher and reproducible student worksheet. Tattle-TaleType Typewriter comparison and If the Shoe Fits shoe print impressions.
- Forensic science ink dating Erich J. Speckin
- Dating of ballpoint pen ink. Hofer
This involves the comparison of the questioned ink being examined to a known library of inks to determine the manufacturer and formula of the ink. Then by researching the library information or contacting the manufacturer an exact date of commercial availability can be established. This would be significant if the date the ink was first available is after the date the ink was purportedly written.
Method for Obtaining Raw Data for the R-Ration and Percent Extraction – Ink DatingIn the stage of final analysis, if all the possible matches are eliminated then no conclusion can be drawn other than that the ink does not match any of the standards in the library.
This is another place where a large body of knowledge of running inks is significant, to evaluate differences that are attributable to differences in batches of inks and differences that lead to the conclusion of different formulations. The best way to establish the degree of differences that can be caused by different batches of the same formulation is to run many samples of the same ink that is known to be different batches. With inks available in common production this is much easier than with inks that are rare.
Any differences that the examiner attributes to differences in batches when making an identification or elimination should be demonstrable in some manner.
If the questioned ink matches more than one of the possible library matches then any of the following may be used to further discriminate some or all of the possible matches from the questioned sample if necessary or desired:. The earliest date that the ink could have been available would then be the earliest date of introduction of all the possible matches. If the universe of possible matches is at some point narrowed to one ink formulation, then an opinion can be expressed that the questioned ink matches the formulation from the library to the exclusion of all other formulations in the reference library.
The size of the reference library of the laboratory conducting the examination is also highly important in the chances of success and also in determining the significance of a match. The only time that a library search will not result in one and only one match is if either the questioned ink is not found in the reference library this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the incompleteness of the reference library or if several samples from different manufacturers are so similar that they cannot be discriminated from one another.
The second option should not be confused with the same ink manufacturer producing the same ink formulation for several different ink companies, such as, Formulabs producing the same ink formulation for Parker and Cross blue ball point pens. Many other similar examples exist. In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year , was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton Police in March The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries payments made of blue ballpoint pen ink. By definition, a cash book has to be written by hand and the entries have to be made daily. The questioned document was suspected to have been written within a short period e. The document lab was asked to determine the date of the entries of the questioned list.
Forensic science ink dating Speckin Forensic Laboratories Staff. Speckin Forensic Laboratory employ’s three document examiners, one fingerprint examiner, an ink dating chemist, two DNA consultants, one toxicologist, one arson and fire investigator, three crime scene experts, a trace evidence and impression evidence examiner, two computer forensic and cell phone examiners as well as two secretaries. The problems. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount. On one hand, we were asked, if the cash book had been kept on account consecutively during the period of one year, and on the other hand, the judges were interested in knowing, if the document could have been written in and back dated to It should also be noted that if extensive fading has occurred, the ink and paper have been burned or excessively heated, or the sample is somehow contaminated, i. Obviously, no library can ever be complete and no exact measure of completeness can be accurately stated, since the number of unknown and unseen inks cannot be stated.
If more analysis is done or some unique component is present, then less of a qualification is necessary. Keeping up with changes in formulations by manufacturers is also important. In recent years several manufacturers have made minor changes to popular formulations, which are evident in the above TLC examinations. One example is, in approximately Bic added an additional bold blue dye to their blue ballpoint formulation.
If an ink being examined contains this newer formulation with the additional blue band it could not have been written until in or after Another example is the addition of a yellow dye to the black ballpoint formulation of Itoya. This addition was made sometime in There are also numerous other examples like the two mentioned. Ink dating — cases: In the following real case examples, one can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests can be used to aid in examinations.
Ink dating — first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part of the evidence by the plaintiff.
There were many entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not. All of the entries that did concern the alleged harassment had been contaminated with a yellow highlighter so that a relative ink age determination discussed in the next chapter could not be performed. The unquestioned entries were examined first. These inks were all uncontaminated and showed to be written by a large variety of different writing instruments over the four-year period of the diaries.
If the questioned entries were genuine and written on or about their purported dates they should exhibit approximately the same degree of randomness. However, in this case it was found that two ink formulations were used to write 53 of the 54 entries regarding the claim of racial harassment.
Contact us today for a FREE consultation regarding your caseForensic science ink dating This grouping encompassed 53 entries over the four-year period. Furthermore, the questioned inks matched in formulation to other inks contained in the diaries but was a different batch of ink than any unquestioned ink in any of the four years of writing that was submitted, but all the ink in the questioned entries are consistent with one another.
Based on this evidence it was concluded that the entries were not written at many different times throughout the years, as purported by the author; but instead at all the same time or near the same time. The doctor denied writing these entries.
A handwriting examination was conducted on these words, which is detailed in an earlier chapter as well as a relative ink age comparison, which is in the next chapter. A thin layer chromatography examination was conducted on the two questioned entries and compared to the writings known to have been written by the doctor denying authorship, as well as several dozen comparison samples from other writers throughout the chart.
It was found that the questioned portions were written with a pen that only matched writings known to have been done by the doctor that was denying authorship and was a different ink and different pen than any writing that was done elsewhere in the chart by any other writer in the dozens of entries that were used for comparison purposes.
This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination. Ink dating — third case example — In the third example a day planner contained one questioned entry in a diary for the calendar year The entry was written with a blue ballpoint ink. There were many different types of ink used throughout the diary. A thin layer chromatography TLC test was conducted to compare the ink formulations used to write the questioned entry to the other unquestioned blue ballpoint inks used in the book.
The ability to further examine these materials, as was described previously, does not exist to the same degree. It is possible to examine xerographically produced materials and determine the extent to which they have been exposed to environmental conditions. This can provide an estimate of age. Additional examination methodologies are being evaluated that concern the other referenced materials.
Physical and chemical examinations can indicate the use of multiple typewriters, printers, papers or writing instruments in the preparation of a document. When additions are prepared using the same materials that were used in the initial preparation of the document then the question actually becomes, "When were the additions made? Many of the physical examinations are totally non-destructive and do not affect the documents in any way.
Nor do these procedures affect the ability of other examiners to perform similar testing. The chemical testing that is referenced does require removal of samples from the document. Normally these samples are removed with a hypodermic needle sized hole punch and do not affect the legibility of the material. The hole punch is approximately the size of a typewriter period and a full range of tests requires about In what way does forensic science involve chemistry?
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ADLC - Elementary Science: Ink Analysis
Dating of ballpoint pen ink. The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. Forensic science ink dating